Normative data for the Rappel libre/Rappel indicé à 16 items (16-item Free and Cued Recall) in the elderly Quebec-French population

Clin Neuropsychol. 2015:28 Suppl 1:S1-19. doi: 10.1080/13854046.2014.915058. Epub 2014 May 12.


Performance on verbal memory tests is generally associated with socio-demographic variables such as age, sex, and education level. Performance also varies between different cultural groups. The present study aimed to establish normative data for the Rappel libre/Rappel indicé à 16 items (16-item Free and Cued Recall; RL/RI-16), a French adaptation of the Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test (Buschke, 1984; Grober, Buschke, Crystal, Bang, & Dresner, 1988). The sample consisted of 566 healthy French-speaking older adults (50-88 years old) from the province of Quebec, Canada. Normative data for the RL/RI-16 were derived from 80% of the total sample (normative sample) and cross-validated using the remaining participants (20%; validation sample). The effects of participants' age, sex, and education level were assessed on different indices of memory performance. Results indicated that these variables were independently associated with performance. Normative data are presented as regression equations with standard deviations (symmetric distributions) and percentiles (asymmetric distributions).

Keywords: Episodic memory; French Canadian; Neuropsychological tests; Normative data; Older adults; Percentiles; Quebec.; Regressions; Word-list learning.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Cues
  • Educational Status
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Language
  • Male
  • Memory, Episodic*
  • Mental Recall*
  • Middle Aged
  • Neuropsychological Tests*
  • Quebec