The past decade has seen explosive growth in new high speed imaging methods. These can broadly be classified as either point-scanning (which offer better depth penetration) or parallelized systems (which offer higher speed). We discuss each class generally, and cover specific advances in diffraction-limited microscopes (laser-scanning confocal, spinning-disk, and light-sheet) and superresolution microscopes (single-molecule imaging, stimulated emission-depletion, and structured illumination). A theme of our review is that there is no free lunch: each technique has strengths and weaknesses, and an advance in speed usually comes at the expense of either spatial resolution or depth penetration.
Published by Elsevier Ltd.