Prevalence of dyslipidemia in urban and rural India: the ICMR-INDIAB study

PLoS One. 2014 May 9;9(5):e96808. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0096808. eCollection 2014.

Abstract

Aim: To study the pattern and prevalence of dyslipidemia in a large representative sample of four selected regions in India.

Methods: Phase I of the Indian Council of Medical Research-India Diabetes (ICMR-INDIAB) study was conducted in a representative population of three states of India [Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra and Jharkhand] and one Union Territory [Chandigarh], and covered a population of 213 million people using stratified multistage sampling design to recruit individuals ≥20 years of age. All the study subjects (n = 16,607) underwent anthropometric measurements and oral glucose tolerance tests were done using capillary blood (except in self-reported diabetes). In addition, in every 5th subject (n = 2042), a fasting venous sample was collected and assayed for lipids. Dyslipidemia was diagnosed using National Cholesterol Education Programme (NCEP) guidelines.

Results: Of the subjects studied, 13.9% had hypercholesterolemia, 29.5% had hypertriglyceridemia, 72.3% had low HDL-C, 11.8% had high LDL-C levels and 79% had abnormalities in one of the lipid parameters. Regional disparity exists with the highest rates of hypercholesterolemia observed in Tamilnadu (18.3%), highest rates of hypertriglyceridemia in Chandigarh (38.6%), highest rates of low HDL-C in Jharkhand (76.8%) and highest rates of high LDL-C in Tamilnadu (15.8%). Except for low HDL-C and in the state of Maharashtra, in all other states, urban residents had the highest prevalence of lipid abnormalities compared to rural residents. Low HDL-C was the most common lipid abnormality (72.3%) in all the four regions studied; in 44.9% of subjects, it was present as an isolated abnormality. Common significant risk factors for dyslipidemia included obesity, diabetes, and dysglycemia.

Conclusion: The prevalence of dyslipidemia is very high in India, which calls for urgent lifestyle intervention strategies to prevent and manage this important cardiovascular risk factor.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Age Distribution
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Dyslipidemias / blood
  • Dyslipidemias / epidemiology*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • India / epidemiology
  • Lipids / blood
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Prevalence
  • Rural Population / statistics & numerical data*
  • Sex Distribution
  • Urban Population / statistics & numerical data*
  • Young Adult

Substances

  • Lipids

Grant support

This study was funded by the Indian Council of Medical Research, New Delhi (No. 55/1/TF/Diab./07-NCD-II). The funders, Indian Council of Medical Research, provided expertise in designing the study and revising the manuscript critically for important intellectual content.