Labiopexy and labioplasty for labium majus rejuvenation in light of a newly discovered anatomic structure

Aesthetic Plast Surg. 2014 Jun;38(3):554-60. doi: 10.1007/s00266-014-0309-3. Epub 2014 May 10.


Background: Currently, removal of excessive cutis with subdermal adipose tissues is done for labium majus rejuvenation. The objectives of this study were to determine the accurate labium majus anatomy, to develop new labiopexy and labioplasty techniques, to attest to the applicability of these two new operations, and to determine the impact of the operations on self-perceived body image and sensation of nerve endings.

Methods: A prospective case series study was conducted. Eleven fresh human female cadavers and three living subjects were studied. Living subjects were healthy women and presented with labium majus deformities. The study was conducted in three phases: phase I, the labium majus anatomy of the cadavers was studied; phase II, anatomic findings from phase I were used to develop and standardize new stepwise surgical interventions; and phase III, newly developed operations were implemented on living subjects. Labial sensation tests of nerve endings were performed preoperatively and at 6 months postoperatively. The primary outcome measured the labial anatomy and applicability of the new operations. The secondary outcome measured the self-perceived body image and sensation of nerve endings before and after surgery.

Results: A new anatomic feature, the labium majus adipose sac, was discovered and was present in each subject. Labium majus labiopexy and labioplasty were executed without technical difficulties or complications. Postoperatively, the self-perceived body image improved and sensation of nerve endings was intact.

Conclusions: The labium majus adipose sac is present in each woman. Intraoperatively, newly developed labium majus labiopexy and/or labioplasty do not create technical problems. Self-perceived body image improves and sensation of the nerve endings is intact after labiopexy or labioplasty.

Evidence-based medicine level ii: This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each submission to which Evidence-Based Medicine rankings are applicable. This excludes Review Articles, Book Reviews, and manuscripts that concern Basic Science, Animal Studies, Cadaver Studies, and Experimental Studies. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Female
  • Genitalia, Female / anatomy & histology*
  • Genitalia, Female / surgery*
  • Humans
  • Middle Aged
  • Rejuvenation