Mitochondrial aging and age-related dysfunction of mitochondria

Biomed Res Int. 2014;2014:238463. doi: 10.1155/2014/238463. Epub 2014 Apr 10.

Abstract

Age-related changes in mitochondria are associated with decline in mitochondrial function. With advanced age, mitochondrial DNA volume, integrity and functionality decrease due to accumulation of mutations and oxidative damage induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS). In aged subjects, mitochondria are characterized by impaired function such as lowered oxidative capacity, reduced oxidative phosphorylation, decreased ATP production, significant increase in ROS generation, and diminished antioxidant defense. Mitochondrial biogenesis declines with age due to alterations in mitochondrial dynamics and inhibition of mitophagy, an autophagy process that removes dysfunctional mitochondria. Age-dependent abnormalities in mitochondrial quality control further weaken and impair mitochondrial function. In aged tissues, enhanced mitochondria-mediated apoptosis contributes to an increase in the percentage of apoptotic cells. However, implementation of strategies such as caloric restriction and regular physical training may delay mitochondrial aging and attenuate the age-related phenotype in humans.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Aging / pathology*
  • Animals
  • Cellular Senescence*
  • DNA, Mitochondrial / genetics
  • Humans
  • Mitochondria / genetics
  • Mitochondria / pathology*
  • Mitochondrial Dynamics / genetics
  • Reactive Oxygen Species / metabolism

Substances

  • DNA, Mitochondrial
  • Reactive Oxygen Species