Introduction: The JAK kinases are a family of four tyrosine receptor kinases that play a pivotal role in cytokine receptor signalling pathways via their interaction with signal transducers and activators of transcription proteins. Selective inhibitors of JAK kinases are viewed as of considerable potential as disease-modifying anti-inflammatory drugs for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.
Areas covered: This article provides a review of the clinical development and available clinical results for those JAK inhibitors currently under investigation. Phase II data for four JAK inhibitors (baricitinib, decernotinib, filgotinib and INCB-039110) are contrasted with that reported for the recently approved JAK inhibitor tofacitinib. The preclinical data on these, in addition to peficitinib, ABT-494, INCB-047986 and AC-410 are also discussed, as are some of the inhibitors in preclinical development.
Expert opinion: JAK inhibitors are effective in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis as evidenced by several inhibitors enabling the majority of treated patients to achieve ACR20 responses, with baricitinib and INCB-039110 both effective when administered once daily. JAK inhibitors differ in isoform specificity profiles, with good efficacy achievable by selective inhibition of either JAK1 (filgotinib or INCB-039110) or JAK3 (decernotinib). It remains to be seen what selectivity provides the optimal side-effect profile and to what extent inhibition of JAK2 should be avoided.
Keywords: JAK1 inhibitor; JAK3 inhibitor; baricitinib; decernotinib; filgotinib; peficitinib; rheumatoid arthritis; tofacitinib.