Proximity of providers: Colocating behavioral health and primary care and the prospects for an integrated workforce

Am Psychol. 2014 May-Jun;69(4):443-51. doi: 10.1037/a0036093.


Integrated behavioral health and primary care is emerging as a superior means by which to address the needs of the whole person, but we know neither the extent nor the distribution of integration. Using the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services' National Plan and Provider Enumeration System (NPPES) Downloadable File, this study reports where colocation exists for (a) primary care providers and any behavioral health provider and (b) primary care providers and psychologists specifically. The NPPES database offers new insights into where opportunities are limited for integration due to workforce shortages or nonproximity of providers and where possibilities exist for colocation, a prerequisite for integration.

MeSH terms

  • Databases, Factual*
  • Delivery of Health Care, Integrated*
  • Health Services Accessibility / statistics & numerical data*
  • Health Workforce / statistics & numerical data*
  • Humans
  • Medicaid
  • Medicare
  • Mental Health Services*
  • Primary Health Care*
  • United States