Why the current diagnostic criteria of Takotsubo syndrome are outmoded: a proposal for new criteria

Int J Cardiol. 2014 Jul 1;174(3):468-70. doi: 10.1016/j.ijcard.2014.04.241. Epub 2014 Apr 29.


Diagnosis of Takotsubo syndrome (TTS), the reversible, acute heart failure pathological entity, precipitated by stress, is based on the fulfillment of sets of criteria, developed by careful characterization of the precipitants, symptoms, results of imaging testing, clinical course, and follow-up of many patients presented with this affliction. As understanding of TTS, increase in its awareness, and the diversion in its presentation have evolved, the various proposed diagnostic criteria, naturally have started to appear outmoded. The author argues that the initially proposed Mayo Clinic criteria, the subsequently revised Mayo Clinic criteria, the Japanese Circulation Society guidelines, the Johns Hopkins criteria, and the Gothenburg criteria for the diagnosis of TTS have been outpaced by the rapidly accumulating clinical experience, and thus need to be replaced by more realistic sets of diagnostic rules. To this effect the author proposes a set of diagnostic criteria for TTS, which include 2 plausible, albeit speculative, notions, that of the milder forms or formes frustes of TTS, and the existence of "TTS comorbidity" in patients with various other illnesses, which either precipitate TTS, or are being brought about by TTS.

Keywords: Criteria; Mayo Clinic criteria for Takotsubo syndrome; Takotsubo syndrome.

Publication types

  • Editorial

MeSH terms

  • Diagnosis, Differential
  • Electrocardiography / standards
  • Humans
  • Practice Guidelines as Topic / standards*
  • Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy / diagnosis*
  • Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy / physiopathology