Aims: To investigate the efficacy and safety of the dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor linagliptin in patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus inadequately controlled by a combination of metformin and pioglitazone.
Methods: This was a multi-centre, phase 3, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study comparing linagliptin 5 mg once daily (n = 183) and placebo (n = 89) as add-on to metformin and pioglitazone. The primary endpoint was the change from baseline in glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c ) after 24 weeks.
Results: The placebo-corrected adjusted mean (se) change in HbA1c from baseline to 24 weeks was -6 (1) mmol/mol [-0.57 (0.13)%] (P < 0.0001). In patients with baseline HbA1c ≥ 53 mmol/mol (7.0%), 32.4% of patients in the linagliptin group and 13.8% in the placebo group achieved HbA1c < 53 mmol/mol (7.0%) (odds ratio 2.94; P = 0.0033). The placebo-corrected adjusted mean (se) change from baseline in fasting plasma glucose at week 24 was -0.57 (0.26) mmol/l [-10.4 (4.7) mg/dl] (P = 0.0280). The incidence of serious adverse events was 2.2% with linagliptin and 3.4% with placebo. Investigator-defined hypoglycaemia occurred in 5.5% of the linagliptin group and 5.6% of the placebo group. No meaningful changes in mean body weight were noted for either group.
Conclusions: Linagliptin as add-on therapy to metformin and pioglitazone produced significant and clinically meaningful improvements in glycaemic control, without an additional risk of hypoglycaemia or weight gain (Clinical Trials Registry No: NCT 00996658).
Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00996658.
© 2014 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Diabetes UK.