Purpose of review: To review unique considerations in the epidemiology, diagnosis, and management of kidney disease in older adults with HIV.
Recent findings: HIV infection may accelerate the course of kidney disease associated with traditional risk factors, such as diabetes, which are more common in older adults. The risks of acute and chronic kidney disease are increased both with HIV infection and with older age. Although the prevalence of chronic kidney disease is higher among HIV-infected adults than among HIV-negative adults, the mean age at diagnosis of end-stage renal disease is similar. Recent studies have supported the use of newer creatinine-based kidney function estimates in HIV-infected adults, although data in older adults are limited. These estimates are susceptible to artifact in the setting of newer medications that interfere with the secretion of creatinine, including cobicistat and dolutegravir. The management of kidney disease in older adults with HIV infection may be complicated by polypharmacy and increased risk for medication toxicity.
Summary: With aging of the HIV-infected population, age-related comorbid conditions such as kidney disease are increasingly important causes of morbidity and mortality. Although recent data do not support premature aging of HIV-infected individuals with respect to kidney disease, the risk of acute and chronic kidney disease is increased by HIV infection and its treatment.