Dogs in Europe may be parasitized by a variety of species of filarioids. While some species have been studied for decades, others have been only recently reported, and their range of distribution is still unknown. The present study was aimed to investigate the occurrence of Cercopithifilaria spp., whose microfilariae reside in the dermis and are transmitted by Rhipicephalus sanguineus s.l. ticks, in a dog population from Romania and to present the current knowledge of their distribution in Europe. Sampling was performed in a rural locality from Danube Delta region of Romania, location chosen due to the presence of the only known vector for these species. Skin samples were collected from 39 dogs. The samples were tested for the presence of Cercopithifilaria spp. by PCR methods. One animal (2.56%) was positive, and the amplified sequence showed a 100% similarity to Cercopithifilaria bainae. This study reports C. bainae for the first time in Eastern Europe, extending the known range of the genus in Europe.