A phase I study of cabozantinib (XL184) in patients with renal cell cancer

Ann Oncol. 2014 Aug;25(8):1603-8. doi: 10.1093/annonc/mdu184. Epub 2014 May 14.


Background: Cabozantinib targets tyrosine kinases including the hepatocyte growth factor receptor (MET) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor 2, which are important drug targets in renal cell carcinoma (RCC).

Patients and methods: This single-arm open-label phase I trial evaluated the safety and tolerability of cabozantinib in heavily pretreated patients with metastatic clear cell RCC.

Results: The study enrolled 25 RCC patients for whom standard therapy had failed. Patients received a median of two prior systemic agents, and most patients had previously received at least one VEGF pathway inhibiting therapy (22 patients [88%]). Common adverse events included fatigue, diarrhea, nausea, proteinuria, appetite decreased, palmar-plantar erythrodysesthesia, and vomiting. Partial response was reported in seven patients (28%). Median progression-free survival was 12.9 months, and median overall survival was 15.0 months.

Conclusion: Cabozantinib demonstrates preliminary anti-tumor activity and a safety profile similar to that seen with other multitargeted VEGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors in advanced RCC patients. Further evaluation of cabozantinib in RCC is warranted. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01100619.

Keywords: VEGFR-2; c-Met; clinical trial; receptor tyrosine kinase; renal cancer.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial, Phase I
  • Multicenter Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Anilides / therapeutic use*
  • Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use*
  • Carcinoma, Renal Cell / drug therapy*
  • Carcinoma, Renal Cell / pathology
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Humans
  • Kidney Neoplasms / drug therapy*
  • Kidney Neoplasms / pathology
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Pyridines / therapeutic use*
  • Treatment Outcome
  • Tumor Burden / drug effects


  • Anilides
  • Antineoplastic Agents
  • Pyridines
  • cabozantinib

Associated data

  • ClinicalTrials.gov/NCT01100619