Late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD) is a devastating neurodegenerative disease with no effective treatment or cure. In addition to APOE, recent large genome-wide association studies have identified variation in over 20 loci that contribute to disease risk: CR1, BIN1, INPP5D, MEF2C, TREM2, CD2AP, HLA-DRB1/HLA-DRB5, EPHA1, NME8, ZCWPW1, CLU, PTK2B, PICALM, SORL1, CELF1, MS4A4/MS4A6E, SLC24A4/RIN3,FERMT2, CD33, ABCA7, CASS4. In addition, rare variants associated with LOAD have also been identified in APP, TREM2 and PLD3 genes. Previous research has identified inflammatory response, lipid metabolism and homeostasis, and endocytosis as the likely modes through which these gene products participate in Alzheimer's disease. Despite the clustering of these genes across a few common pathways, many of their roles in disease pathogenesis have yet to be determined. In this review, we examine both general and postulated disease functions of these genes and consider a comprehensive view of their potential roles in LOAD risk.
Keywords: Biological pathways; Genetics; Late-onset Alzheimer’s disease.