Remodelling is a response of the myocardium and vasculature to a range of potentially noxious haemodynamic, metabolic, and inflammatory stimuli. Remodelling is initially functional, compensatory, and adaptive but, when sustained, progresses to structural changes that become self-perpetuating and pathogenic. Remodelling involves responses not only of the cardiomyocytes, endothelium, and vascular smooth muscle cells, but also of interstitial cells and matrix. In this Review we characterise the remodelling processes in atherosclerosis, vascular and myocardial ischaemia-reperfusion injury, and heart failure, and we draw attention to potential avenues for innovative therapeutic approaches, including conditioning and metabolic strategies.
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