Cutaneous Eyelid Neoplasms as a Toxicity of Vemurafenib Therapy

Ophthalmic Plast Reconstr Surg. 2015 Jul-Aug;31(4):e112-5. doi: 10.1097/IOP.0000000000000140.


The discovery of BRAF mutation in ~50% of melanomas led to the development of small molecule BRAF inhibitors, including sorafenib, debrafenib, and vemurafenib. Clinical trials have shown these agents to be effective in treatment of metastatic and locally advanced melanoma, increasing overall and progression-free survival. However, some of the most common toxicities associated with BRAF inhibitor therapy include adverse skin events such as rashes, photosensitivity, hyperkeratosis, papillomas, keratoacanthomas, and squamous cell carcinomas. Here, the authors describe 3 patients who developed keratinocytic neoplasms on the eyelid, including invasive squamous carcinoma secondary to vemurafenib. Vigilant screening and a high index of suspicion for eyelid carcinomas are recommended in patients treated with vemurafenib.

Publication types

  • Case Reports
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Carcinoma / drug therapy
  • Carcinoma, Papillary
  • Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / chemically induced*
  • Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology
  • Eyelid Neoplasms / chemically induced*
  • Eyelid Neoplasms / pathology
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Indoles / adverse effects*
  • Male
  • Melanoma / drug therapy
  • Melanoma / secondary
  • Middle Aged
  • Phosphatidylethanolamine Binding Protein / adverse effects*
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf / antagonists & inhibitors*
  • Skin Neoplasms / chemically induced*
  • Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • Sulfonamides / adverse effects*
  • Thyroid Cancer, Papillary
  • Thyroid Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • Vemurafenib


  • Indoles
  • PEBP1 protein, human
  • Phosphatidylethanolamine Binding Protein
  • Sulfonamides
  • Vemurafenib
  • BRAF protein, human
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf