MicroRNA (miRNAs) is demonstrated to be present in the blood of humans and has been increasingly suggested as a novel biomarker for various pathological processes in the heart, including myocardial infarction, myocardial remodeling and progression to heart failure. In this study, we aim to evaluate the diagnostic and prognostic value of circulating miR-328 and miR-134 in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Circulating levels of miR-328 and miR-134 were detected by quantitative real-time PCR in plasma samples from 359 AMI patients and 30 healthy volunteers. Concentrations of high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT) were measured using electrochemiluminescence-based methods. MiRNAs were assessed for discrimination of a clinical diagnosis of AMI and for association with primary clinical endpoint defined as a composite of cardiogenic death and development of heart failure within 6 months after infarction. Results showed that levels of plasma miR-328 and miR-134 were significantly higher in AMI patients than in healthy controls. Receiver operating characteristic curve analyses showed significant diagnostic value of miR-328 and miR-134 for AMI. However, neither of them was superior to hs-cTnT for the diagnosis. Additionally, increased miRNA levels were strongly associated with increased risk of mortality or heart failure within 6 months for miR-328 (OR 7.35, 95 % confidence interval 1.07-17.83, P < 0.001) and miR-134 (OR 2.28, 95 % confidence interval 1.03-11.32 P < 0.001). In conclusion, circulating miR-328 and miR-134 could be potential indicators for AMI, and the miRNA levels are associated with increased risk of mortality or development of heart failure.