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Review
, 20 (18), 5283-93

Treatment of Helicobacter Pylori Infection: Current Status and Future Concepts

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Review

Treatment of Helicobacter Pylori Infection: Current Status and Future Concepts

Jyh-Chin Yang et al. World J Gastroenterol.

Abstract

Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is highly associated with the occurrence of gastrointestinal diseases, including gastric inflammation, peptic ulcer, gastric cancer, and gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid-tissue lymphoma. Although alternative therapies, including phytomedicines and probiotics, have been used to improve eradication, current treatment still relies on a combination of antimicrobial agents, such as amoxicillin, clarithromycin, metronidazole, and levofloxacin, and antisecretory agents, such as proton pump inhibitors (PPIs). A standard triple therapy consisting of a PPI and two antibiotics (clarithromycin and amoxicillin/metronidazole) is widely used as the first-line regimen for treatment of infection, but the increased resistance of H. pylori to clarithromycin and metronidazole has significantly reduced the eradication rate using this therapy and bismuth-containing therapy or 10-d sequential therapy has therefore been proposed to replace standard triple therapy. Alternatively, levofloxacin-based triple therapy can be used as rescue therapy for H. pylori infection after failure of first-line therapy. The increase in resistance to antibiotics, including levofloxacin, may limit the applicability of such regimens. However, since resistance of H. pylori to amoxicillin is generally low, an optimized high dose dual therapy consisting of a PPI and amoxicillin can be an effective first-line or rescue therapy. In addition, the concomitant use of alternative medicine has the potential to provide additive or synergistic effects against H. pylori infection, though its efficacy needs to be verified in clinical studies.

Keywords: Antimicrobial agents; Campylobacter pyloridis; Helicobacter pylori; Proton pump inhibitor.

Figures

Figure 1
Figure 1
Factors that may affect treatment outcome for eradication of Helicobacter pylori infection. The dotted lines indicate a probable positive association. PPI: Proton pump inhibitor; H. pylori: Helicobacter pylori; IL: Interleukin.

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