Cirrhosis and its complications: evidence based treatment

World J Gastroenterol. 2014 May 14;20(18):5442-60. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v20.i18.5442.

Abstract

Cirrhosis results from progressive fibrosis and is the final outcome of all chronic liver disease. It is among the ten leading causes of death in United States. Cirrhosis can result in portal hypertension and/or hepatic dysfunction. Both of these either alone or in combination can lead to many complications, including ascites, varices, hepatic encephalopathy, hepatocellular carcinoma, hepatopulmonary syndrome, and coagulation disorders. Cirrhosis and its complications not only impair quality of life but also decrease survival. Managing patients with cirrhosis can be a challenge and requires an organized and systematic approach. Increasing physicians' knowledge about prevention and treatment of these potential complications is important to improve patient outcomes. A literature search of the published data was performed to provide a comprehensive review regarding the management of cirrhosis and its complications.

Keywords: Ascites; Hepatic encephalopathy; Hepatopulmonary syndrome; Portal hypertension; Portopulmonary hypertension; Varices.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Ascites / etiology
  • Ascites / therapy
  • Bacterial Infections / microbiology
  • Bacterial Infections / therapy
  • Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / etiology
  • Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / therapy
  • Esophageal and Gastric Varices / etiology
  • Esophageal and Gastric Varices / therapy
  • Evidence-Based Medicine*
  • Hepatic Encephalopathy / etiology
  • Hepatic Encephalopathy / therapy
  • Hepatopulmonary Syndrome / etiology
  • Hepatopulmonary Syndrome / therapy
  • Hepatorenal Syndrome / etiology
  • Hepatorenal Syndrome / therapy
  • Humans
  • Hypertension, Portal / etiology
  • Hypertension, Portal / therapy
  • Hyponatremia / etiology
  • Hyponatremia / therapy
  • Liver Cirrhosis / diagnosis
  • Liver Cirrhosis / etiology
  • Liver Cirrhosis / mortality
  • Liver Cirrhosis / therapy*
  • Liver Neoplasms / etiology
  • Liver Neoplasms / therapy
  • Peritonitis / microbiology
  • Peritonitis / therapy
  • Risk Factors
  • Treatment Outcome