The transcription factors TCF-1 and LEF-1 are essential for early T cell development, but their roles beyond the CD4(+)CD8(+) double-positive (DP) stage are unknown. By specific ablation of these factors in DP thymocytes, we demonstrated that deficiency in TCF-1 and LEF-1 diminished the output of CD4(+) T cells and redirected CD4(+) T cells to a CD8(+) T cell fate. The role of TCF-1 and LEF-1 in the CD4-versus-CD8 lineage 'choice' was mediated in part by direct positive regulation of the transcription factor Th-POK. Furthermore, loss of TCF-1 and LEF-1 unexpectedly caused derepression of CD4 expression in T cells committed to the CD8(+) lineage without affecting the expression of Runx transcription factors. Instead, TCF-1 physically interacted with Runx3 to cooperatively silence Cd4. Thus, TCF-1 and LEF-1 adopted distinct genetic 'wiring' to promote the CD4(+) T cell fate and establish CD8(+) T cell identity.