Epidemiology of ischemic placental disease: a focus on preterm gestations

Semin Perinatol. 2014 Apr;38(3):133-8. doi: 10.1053/j.semperi.2014.03.004.


Preeclampsia, placental abruption, and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) have collectively been termed ischemic placental disease (IPD) due to a suspected common biological pathway involving poor placentation in early pregnancy and subsequent placental insufficiency. Despite decades of research, the etiologies of these conditions remain largely unknown and preventive and therapeutic strategies are lacking. It has been suggested that the underpinnings of IPD lie primarily in preterm gestations and that classification of these conditions based on the gestational age at onset will facilitate etiologic research. The purpose of this review is to describe our current knowledge regarding the risk factors, co-occurrence, and recurrence of the conditions of IPD with a specific focus on the preterm gestational window.

Keywords: Early onset; Placental abruption; Preeclampsia; Preterm; Small for gestational age.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Abruptio Placentae / epidemiology*
  • Abruptio Placentae / etiology
  • Female
  • Fetal Growth Retardation / epidemiology*
  • Fetal Growth Retardation / etiology
  • Health Behavior
  • Humans
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Infant, Small for Gestational Age
  • Ischemia / complications
  • Ischemia / epidemiology*
  • Maternal Age
  • Mothers
  • Placenta / blood supply*
  • Pre-Eclampsia / epidemiology*
  • Pre-Eclampsia / etiology
  • Pregnancy
  • Premature Birth / epidemiology*
  • Premature Birth / prevention & control
  • Prevalence
  • Recurrence