Unraveling the relationship between microbial translocation and systemic immune activation in HIV infection

J Clin Invest. 2014 Jun;124(6):2368-71. doi: 10.1172/JCI75799. Epub 2014 May 16.


Chronic immune activation is a key factor in HIV-1 disease progression. The translocation of microbial products from the intestinal lumen into the systemic circulation occurs during HIV-1 infection and is associated closely with immune activation; however, it has not been determined conclusively whether microbial translocation drives immune activation or occurs as a consequence of HIV-1 infection. In an important study in this issue of the JCI, Kristoff and colleagues describe the role of microbial translocation in producing immune activation in an animal model of HIV-1 infection, SIV infection of pigtailed macaques. Blocking translocation of intestinal bacterial LPS into the circulation dramatically reduced T cell activation and proliferation, production of proinflammatory cytokines, and plasma SIV RNA levels. This study directly demonstrates that microbial translocation promotes the systemic immune activation associated with HIV-1/SIV infection.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Comment

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Bacterial Translocation / drug effects*
  • Humans
  • Polyamines / pharmacology*
  • Sevelamer
  • Simian Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / drug therapy*
  • Simian Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / microbiology*


  • Polyamines
  • Sevelamer