Advances in gluten-free bread technology

Food Sci Technol Int. 2015 Jun;21(4):256-76. doi: 10.1177/1082013214531425. Epub 2014 May 16.

Abstract

The unattractive appearance of gluten-free bread still remains a challenge in gluten-free breadmaking. In response to this, additives such as dairy products, soya and eggs have been used to improve the quality of gluten-free bread, but with limited success. In recent years, enzymes (transglutaminase and cyclodextrinase) and hydrocolloids (carboxymethylcellulose and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose) have become the main focus for the improvement of gluten-free bread. Transglutaminase has been shown to improve the dough viscoelasticity and decrease crumb hardness (6.84-5.73 N) of the resulting bread. Cyclodextrinase also enhances dough viscoelasticity, resulting in an improvement of 53% in shape index and crumb firmness. Similarly, hydroxypropylmethylcellulose improves gas retention and water absorption of dough and reduces crumb hardening rate of the resulting bread, while carboxymethylcellulose significantly increases dough elasticity (60-70 BU) and bread volume (230-267 cm(3)/100 g bread).

Keywords: Gluten-free products; enzymes; functional properties; hydrocolloids.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Bread / analysis*
  • Colloids
  • Dairy Products
  • Diet, Gluten-Free*
  • Edible Grain
  • Eggs
  • Elasticity
  • Flour / analysis
  • Food Handling / methods
  • Food Quality
  • Food Technology / methods*
  • Glutens*
  • Glycoside Hydrolases
  • Peas / chemistry
  • Plant Proteins
  • Psyllium
  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae
  • Transglutaminases
  • Viscosity
  • Water

Substances

  • Colloids
  • Plant Proteins
  • Water
  • Glutens
  • Psyllium
  • Transglutaminases
  • Glycoside Hydrolases
  • cyclomaltodextrinase