Purpose: To investigate and clarify the relationship between circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D level and prostate cancer risk.
Methods: We conducted the meta-analysis to better evaluate the association. Terms "25-Hydroxyvitamin D"/"vitamin D" and "prostate cancer" were used for literature search.
Results: We identified 21 relevant publications from databases of PubMed and MEDLINE and included 11,941 cases and 13,870 controls in the meta-analysis. Overall studies revealed a significant 17 % elevated risk of prostate cancer for individuals with higher level of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (OR = 1.17, 95 % CI = 1.05-1.30, P = 0.004), and no publication bias was found in the calculations (P = 0.629). Subgroup analysis confirmed the association from nested case-control study group, studies from USA group and studies using serum samples group (nested case-control studies: OR = 1.17, 95 % CI = 1.08-1.27, P < 0.001; USA: OR = 1.15, 95 % CI = 1.03-1.29, P = 0.017; serum: OR = 1.20, 95 % CI = 1.01-1.42, P = 0.042); moreover, sensitivity tests also indicated significant results in studies from Europe and studies conducting with plasma samples after exclusion of some influential single study from the analysis, respectively (Europe: OR = 1.21, 95 % CI = 1.04-1.40, P = 0.014; plasma: OR = 1.13, 95 % CI = 1.00-1.27, P = 0.05).
Conclusions: Our meta-analysis, for the first time, suggested significant positive relationship between high level of 25-hydroxyvitamin D and increased risk of prostate cancer, reminding us that more concern should be taken into account during assessing the effect of 25-hydroxyvitamin D.