Chlorpyrifos PBPK/PD model for multiple routes of exposure

Xenobiotica. 2014 Oct;44(10):868-81. doi: 10.3109/00498254.2014.918295. Epub 2014 May 19.


1. Chlorpyrifos (CPF) is an important pesticide used to control crop insects. Human Exposures to CPF will occur primarily through oral exposure to residues on foods. A physiologically based pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PBPK/PD) model has been developed that describes the relationship between oral, dermal and inhalation doses of CPF and key events in the pathway for cholinergic effects. The model was built on a prior oral model that addressed age-related changes in metabolism and physiology. This multi-route model was developed in rats and humans to validate all scenarios in a parallelogram design. 2. Critical biological effects from CPF exposure require metabolic activation to CPF oxon, and small amounts of metabolism in tissues will potentially have a great effect on pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamic outcomes. Metabolism (bioactivation and detoxification) was therefore added in diaphragm, brain, lung and skin compartments. Pharmacokinetic data are available for controlled human exposures via the oral and dermal routes and from oral and inhalation studies in rats. The validated model was then used to determine relative dermal versus inhalation uptake from human volunteers exposed to CPF in an indoor scenario.

Keywords: Chlorpyrifos; PBPK; multi-route.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Animals
  • Chlorpyrifos / pharmacokinetics*
  • Environmental Exposure*
  • Healthy Volunteers
  • Humans
  • Insecticides / pharmacokinetics*
  • Middle Aged
  • Models, Biological*
  • Rats
  • Young Adult


  • Insecticides
  • Chlorpyrifos