The Triple P-Positive Parenting Program: a systematic review and meta-analysis of a multi-level system of parenting support

Clin Psychol Rev. 2014 Jun;34(4):337-57. doi: 10.1016/j.cpr.2014.04.003. Epub 2014 Apr 26.


This systematic review and meta-analysis examined the effects of the multilevel Triple P-Positive Parenting Program system on a broad range of child, parent and family outcomes. Multiple search strategies identified 116 eligible studies conducted over a 33-year period, with 101 studies comprising 16,099 families analyzed quantitatively. Moderator analyses were conducted using structural equation modeling. Risk of bias within and across studies was assessed. Significant short-term effects were found for: children's social, emotional and behavioral outcomes (d=0.473); parenting practices (d=0.578); parenting satisfaction and efficacy (d=0.519); parental adjustment (d=0.340); parental relationship (d=0.225) and child observational data (d=0.501). Significant effects were found for all outcomes at long-term including parent observational data (d=0.249). Moderator analyses found that study approach, study power, Triple P level, and severity of initial child problems produced significant effects in multiple moderator models when controlling for other significant moderators. Several putative moderators did not have significant effects after controlling for other significant moderators. The positive results for each level of the Triple P system provide empirical support for a blending of universal and targeted parenting interventions to promote child, parent and family wellbeing.

Keywords: Behavioral parenting intervention; Meta-analysis; Parenting; Public health; Systematic review; Triple P-Positive Parenting Program.

Publication types

  • Meta-Analysis
  • Review
  • Systematic Review

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Child
  • Child Behavior Disorders / therapy*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Parenting / psychology*
  • Parents / psychology*
  • Personal Satisfaction
  • Program Evaluation / methods*
  • Social Support*