Purpose: Drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) syndrome is characterized by prolonged clinical symptoms even after the withdrawal of the culprit drug. Different criteria to diagnose DRESS syndrome have been proposed; however, there have been limited studies on prognostic factors. We investigated appropriate criteria for the diagnosis of DRESS syndrome in practice and with associated prognostic factors.
Methods: A total of 48 patients with DRESS syndrome that satisfied RegiSCAR possible (or more) criteria were retrospectively recruited. They were also analyzed according to Bocquet's criteria and Japanese drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome (DIHS) criteria. The duration of clinical manifestations, requirement for steroids, and fatalities determined the severity of DRESS syndrome. Blood tests were performed at initial presentation to our hospital.
Results: A total of 60.4% of patients satisfied RegiSCAR definite criteria and 77.1% satisfied Bocquet's criteria. Only 18.8% satisfied atypical DIHS criteria from the Japanese group. A total of 96.6% patients who fit the RegiSCAR definite criteria, 96.6% also satisfied Bocquet's criteria; reciprocally, 75.7% of patients who met Bocquet's criteria also satisfied RegiSCAR definite criteria. The duration of clinical symptoms positively correlated with leukocyte, lymphocyte, and eosinophil counts in non-fatal cases. Lymphocyte counts were higher in patients who used steroids compared to steroid-naïve patients. Fatal cases showed higher serum creatinine and ferritin levels compared to non-fatal cases.
Conclusions: Bocquet's criteria is efficient and appropriate to diagnose DRESS syndrome in clinical practice. Lymphocyte and eosinophil counts as well as creatinine and ferritin levels could be useful early prognostic factors.
Keywords: Diagnosis; drug hypersensitivity; lymphocytes; prognosis.