The liver has a unique regenerative capability, which involves extensive remodelling of cell-cell and cell-matrix contacts. Here we study the role of integrins in mouse liver regeneration using Cre/loxP-mediated gene deletion or intravenous delivery of β1-integrin siRNA formulated into nanoparticles that predominantly target hepatocytes. We show that although short-term loss of β1-integrin has no obvious consequences for normal livers, partial hepatectomy leads to severe liver necrosis and reduced hepatocyte proliferation. Mechanistically, loss of β1-integrin in hepatocytes impairs ligand-induced phosphorylation of the epidermal growth factor and hepatocyte growth factor receptors, thereby attenuating downstream receptor signalling in vitro and in vivo. These results identify a crucial role and novel mechanism of action of β1-integrins in liver regeneration and demonstrate that protein depletion by nanoparticle-based delivery of specific siRNA is a powerful strategy to study gene function in the regenerating liver.