Background: Individuals with type 1 diabetes may have low IGF-1, related to insulinopenia and insulin resistance. There are few longitudinal studies of IGF-1 levels to establish its pattern in type 1 diabetes with duration and age, and to examine whether IGF-1 tracks within individuals over time. We examine age and duration trends, and the relationship of IGF-1 to gender, glycaemic control, insulin level and other factors.
Methods: Participants in the Wisconsin Diabetes Registry Study, an incident cohort study of type 1 diabetes diagnosed May 1987-April 1992, were followed for up to 18 years with IGF-1 samples up to age 45 for women and age 37 for men.
Results: IGF-1 is lower with type 1 diabetes than in normative samples. Although, the pattern across age resembles that in normative samples with a peak in adolescence and slow decline after age 20, the adolescent peak is delayed for women with type 1 diabetes. There was low to moderate tracking of IGF-1 within an individual. Higher insulin dose was associated with higher IGF-1 as was puberty, and female gender. Adjusted for these factors, IGF-1 declined rapidly across early diabetes duration. Lower HbA1c was most strongly related to higher IGF-1 at Tanner stages 1 and 2.
Conclusions: IGF-1 is low in type 1 diabetes, with a delayed adolescent peak in women and is especially influenced by glycaemic control in early and pre-adolescence. High variability within an individual is likely a challenge in investigating associations between IGF-1 and long-term outcomes, and may explain contradictory findings.
Keywords: IGF-1; predictors; tracking; trajectory; type 1 diabetes; variance.
Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.