Effect of breakfast skipping on diurnal variation of energy metabolism and blood glucose

Obes Res Clin Pract. 2014 May-Jun;8(3):e201-98. doi: 10.1016/j.orcp.2013.01.001.


Epidemiological studies suggest an association between breakfast skipping and body weight gain, insulin resistance or type 2 diabetes. Time when meal is consumed affects postprandial increase in energy expenditure and blood glucose, and breakfast skipping may reduce 24 h energy expenditure and elevate blood glucose level. The present study evaluated the effect of breakfast skipping on diurnal variation of energy metabolism and blood glucose. The skipped breakfast was compensated by following big meals at lunch and supper. In a randomized repeated-measure design with or without breakfast, eight males stayed twice in a room-size respiratory chamber. Blood glucose was recorded with a continuous glucose monitoring system. Breakfast skipping did not affect 24 h energy expenditure, fat oxidation and thermic effect of food, but increased overall 24 h average of blood glucose (83 ± 3 vs 89 ± 2 mg/dl, P < 0.05). Unlike 24 h glucose level, 24 h energy expenditure was robust when challenged by breakfast skipping. These observations suggest that changes in glucose homeostasis precede that of energy balance, in the potential sequence caused by breakfast skipping, if this dietary habit has any effect on energy balance.:

Publication types

  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Blood Glucose / metabolism*
  • Breakfast*
  • Calorimetry
  • Cross-Over Studies
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / blood*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / prevention & control
  • Energy Intake
  • Energy Metabolism
  • Fasting* / blood
  • Glycemic Index
  • Humans
  • Insulin / blood
  • Insulin Resistance*
  • Male
  • Postprandial Period
  • Time Factors
  • Weight Gain*


  • Blood Glucose
  • Insulin