Texturized pinto bean protein fortification in straight dough bread formulation

Plant Foods Hum Nutr. 2014 Sep;69(3):235-40. doi: 10.1007/s11130-014-0421-1.


Pinto beans were milled and then air-classified to obtain a raw high protein fraction (RHPF) followed by extrusion to texturize the protein fraction. The texturized high protein fraction (THPF) was then milled to obtain flour, and combined with wheat flour at 5, 10, and 15% levels to make bread. The air-classification process produced flour with high concentration of lipids and phytic acid in the protein-rich fraction. However, extrusion significantly reduced hexane extractable lipid and phytic acid. However, the reduction observed may simply indicate a reduction in recovery due to bind with other components. Total protein and lysine contents in composite flours increased significantly as THPF levels increased in composite flour. Bread made with 5% THPF had 48% more lysine than the 100 % wheat flour (control). The THPF helped to maintain dough strength by reducing mixing tolerance index (MTI), maintaining dough stability and increasing departure time on Farinograph. Bread loaf volume was significantly reduced above 5% THPF addition. THPF increased water absorption causing an increase in bread weights by up to 6%. Overall, loaf quality deteriorated at 10 and 15% THPF levels while bread with 5% THPF was not significantly different from the control. These results support the addition of 5% THPF as a means to enhance lysine content of white pan bread.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Amino Acids, Essential / analysis
  • Bread / analysis*
  • Dietary Proteins / analysis*
  • Fabaceae / chemistry*
  • Flour / analysis
  • Food Handling
  • Food, Fortified*
  • Triticum / chemistry


  • Amino Acids, Essential
  • Dietary Proteins