Biomechanical evaluation of knee kinematics after anatomic single- and anatomic double-bundle ACL reconstructions with medial meniscal repair

Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2015 Sep;23(9):2734-41. doi: 10.1007/s00167-014-3071-9. Epub 2014 May 22.


Purpose: To evaluate knee laxity after anatomic ACL reconstruction with additional suture repair of a medial meniscus tear.

Methods: Kinematics of the intact knee were determined in 12 human cadaver specimens in response to a 134-N anterior tibial load (aTT) and a combined rotatory load of 10 Nm valgus and 4 Nm internal tibial rotation (aTTPS) using a robotic/universal force moment sensor testing system. Subsequently, the ACL was resected following the creation of a standardized tear of the medial meniscus, a standard meniscus repair and an ACL reconstruction using an anatomic single-bundle (6) or an anatomic double-bundle technique (6). Knee kinematics were determined following every sub-step.

Results: Significant increase of aTT in the ACL-deficient knee was found (p ≤ 0.001) with a further increase in the ACL-deficient knee with additional medial meniscal rupture (p ≤ 0.001). ACL reconstructions significantly decreased aTT compared with the ACL and meniscus-ruptured knee. No significant differences were seen between the intact knee and the ACL-reconstructed knee with additional meniscal repair (p < 0.05). In response to a simulated pivot shift, aTTPS in the intact knee significantly increased in the ACL-deficient knee and meniscus-ruptured knee (p = 0.005). No significant differences in knee kinematics were found between SB as well as DB ACL reconstruction with additional medial meniscal repair compared with the intact knee. Comparison of SB versus DB ACL reconstruction did not reveal any significant differences in a simulated Lachman test or simulated pivot shift test (n.s.).

Conclusions: aTT as well as aTTPS significantly increased with ACL deficiency compared with the intact knee; additional medial meniscal rupture further increased aTT. Anatomic ACL reconstruction with medial meniscal repair did not reveal significant differences in knee kinematics compared with the intact knee. Comparison of anatomic SB versus DB ACL reconstruction with additional repair of the medial meniscus did not show significant differences neither in a simulated Lachman nor in a simulated pivot shift test.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Anterior Cruciate Ligament / physiopathology
  • Anterior Cruciate Ligament / surgery
  • Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injuries*
  • Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction / methods*
  • Biomechanical Phenomena
  • Cadaver
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Joint Instability / etiology
  • Joint Instability / physiopathology
  • Joint Instability / surgery*
  • Knee Injuries / complications
  • Knee Injuries / physiopathology*
  • Knee Injuries / surgery
  • Knee Joint / physiopathology*
  • Knee Joint / surgery
  • Male
  • Menisci, Tibial / physiopathology
  • Menisci, Tibial / surgery*
  • Robotics
  • Tibial Meniscus Injuries