A restatement of the natural science evidence base concerning neonicotinoid insecticides and insect pollinators

Proc Biol Sci. 2014 Jul 7;281(1786):20140558. doi: 10.1098/rspb.2014.0558.


There is evidence that in Europe and North America many species of pollinators are in decline, both in abundance and distribution. Although there is a long list of potential causes of this decline, there is concern that neonicotinoid insecticides, in particular through their use as seed treatments are, at least in part, responsible. This paper describes a project that set out to summarize the natural science evidence base relevant to neonicotinoid insecticides and insect pollinators in as policy-neutral terms as possible. A series of evidence statements are listed and categorized according to the nature of the underlying information. The evidence summary forms the appendix to this paper and an annotated bibliography is provided in the electronic supplementary material.

Keywords: bumblebee; honeybee; insecticides; neonicotinoids; pollination; pollinator.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Anabasine / analogs & derivatives*
  • Anabasine / toxicity*
  • Animals
  • Bees / drug effects*
  • Insecticides / toxicity*
  • Pollination


  • Insecticides
  • Anabasine