Valve surgery in active infective endocarditis: a simple score to predict in-hospital prognosis

Int J Cardiol. 2014 Jul 15;175(1):133-7. doi: 10.1016/j.ijcard.2014.04.266. Epub 2014 May 9.


Aims: Surgery for infective endocarditis (IE) is associated with high mortality. Our objectives were to describe the experience with surgical treatment for IE in Spain, and to identify predictors of in-hospital mortality.

Methods: Prospective cohort of 1000 consecutive patients with IE. Data were collected in 26 Spanish hospitals.

Results: Surgery was performed in 437 patients (43.7%). Patients treated with surgery were younger and predominantly male. They presented fewer comorbid conditions and more often had negative blood cultures and heart failure. In-hospital mortality after surgery was lower than in the medical therapy group (24.3 vs 30.7%, p=0.02). In patients treated with surgery, endocarditis involved a native valve in 267 patients (61.1%), a prosthetic valve in 122 (27.9%), and a pacemaker lead with no clear further valve involvement in 48 (11.0%). The most common aetiologies were Staphylococcus (186, 42.6%), Streptococcus (97, 22.2%), and Enterococcus (49, 11.2%). The main indications for surgery were heart failure and severe valve regurgitation. A risk score for in-hospital mortality was developed using 7 prognostic variables with a similar predictive value (OR between 1.7 and 2.3): PALSUSE: prosthetic valve, age ≥ 70, large intracardiac destruction, Staphylococcus spp, urgent surgery, sex [female], EuroSCORE ≥ 10. In-hospital mortality ranged from 0% in patients with a PALSUSE score of 0 to 45.4% in patients with PALSUSE score >3.

Conclusions: The prognosis of IE surgery is highly variable. The PALSUSE score could help to identify patients with higher in-hospital mortality.

Keywords: Infective endocarditis; Prognosis; Risk stratification; Surgery.

Publication types

  • Multicenter Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Cohort Studies
  • Endocarditis, Bacterial / diagnosis
  • Endocarditis, Bacterial / mortality*
  • Endocarditis, Bacterial / surgery*
  • Female
  • Heart Valve Prosthesis Implantation / methods
  • Heart Valve Prosthesis Implantation / mortality*
  • Heart Valve Prosthesis Implantation / trends*
  • Hospital Mortality / trends*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Predictive Value of Tests
  • Prospective Studies
  • Severity of Illness Index*