Non-invasive wearable electrochemical sensors: a review

Trends Biotechnol. 2014 Jul;32(7):363-71. doi: 10.1016/j.tibtech.2014.04.005. Epub 2014 May 19.


Wearable sensors have garnered considerable recent interest owing to their tremendous promise for a plethora of applications. Yet the absence of reliable non-invasive chemical sensors has greatly hindered progress in the area of on-body sensing. Electrochemical sensors offer considerable promise as wearable chemical sensors that are suitable for diverse applications owing to their high performance, inherent miniaturization, and low cost. A wide range of wearable electrochemical sensors and biosensors has been developed for real-time non-invasive monitoring of electrolytes and metabolites in sweat, tears, or saliva as indicators of a wearer's health status. With continued innovation and attention to key challenges, such non-invasive electrochemical sensors and biosensors are expected to open up new exciting avenues in the field of wearable wireless sensing devices and body-sensor networks, and thus find considerable use in a wide range of personal health-care monitoring applications, as well as in sport and military applications.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Biosensing Techniques / instrumentation*
  • Biosensing Techniques / methods
  • Electrochemical Techniques / methods*
  • Humans
  • Monitoring, Ambulatory / instrumentation*
  • Saliva / chemistry
  • Sweat / chemistry
  • Tears / chemistry
  • Wireless Technology