The recently identified glycyl radical enzyme (GRE) homologue choline trimethylamine-lyase (CutC) participates in the anaerobic conversion of choline to trimethylamine (TMA), a widely distributed microbial metabolic transformation that occurs in the human gut and is linked to disease. The proposed biochemical function of CutC, C-N bond cleavage, represents new reactivity for the GRE family. Here we describe the in vitro characterization of CutC and its activating protein CutD. We have observed CutD-mediated formation of a glycyl radical on CutC using EPR spectroscopy and have demonstrated that activated CutC processes choline to trimethylamine and acetaldehyde. Surveys of potential alternate CutC substrates uncovered a strict specificity for choline. Homology modeling and mutagenesis experiments revealed essential CutC active site residues. Overall, this work establishes that CutC is a GRE of unique function and a molecular marker for anaerobic choline metabolism.