Haemodynamic-guided fluid administration for the prevention of contrast-induced acute kidney injury: the POSEIDON randomised controlled trial

Lancet. 2014 May 24;383(9931):1814-23. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(14)60689-9.


Background: The administration of intravenous fluid remains the cornerstone treatment for the prevention of contrast-induced acute kidney injury. However, no well-defined protocols exist to guide fluid administration in this treatment. We aimed to establish the efficacy of a new fluid protocol to prevent contrast-induced acute kidney injury.

Methods: In this randomised, parallel-group, comparator-controlled, single-blind phase 3 trial, we assessed the efficacy of a new fluid protocol based on the left ventricular end-diastolic pressure for the prevention of contrast-induced acute kidney injury in patients undergoing cardiac catheterisation. The primary outcome was the occurrence of contrast-induced acute kidney injury, which was defined as a greater than 25% or greater than 0·5 mg/dL increase in serum creatinine concentration. Between Oct 10, 2010, and July 17, 2012, 396 patients aged 18 years or older undergoing cardiac catheterisation with an estimated glomerular filtration rate of 60 mL/min per 1·73 m(2) or less and one or more of several risk factors (diabetes mellitus, history of congestive heart failure, hypertension, or age older than 75 years) were randomly allocated in a 1:1 ratio to left ventricular end-diastolic pressure-guided volume expansion (n=196) or the control group (n=200) who received a standard fluid administration protocol. Four computer-generated concealed randomisation schedules, each with permuted block sizes of 4, were used for randomisation, and participants were allocated to the next sequential randomisation number by sealed opaque envelopes. Patients and laboratory personnel were masked to treatment assignment, but the physicians who did the procedures were not masked. Both groups received intravenous 0·9% sodium chloride at 3 mL/kg for 1 h before cardiac catheterisation. Analyses were by intention to treat. Adverse events were assessed at 30 days and 6 months and all such events were classified by staff who were masked to treatment assignment. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01218828.

Findings: Contrast-induced acute kidney injury occurred less frequently in patients in the left ventricular end-diastolic pressure-guided group (6·7% [12/178]) than in the control group (16·3% [28/172]; relative risk 0·41, 95% CI 0·22-0·79; p=0·005). Hydration treatment was terminated prematurely because of shortness of breath in three patients in each group.

Interpretation: Left ventricular end-diastolic pressure-guided fluid administration seems to be safe and effective in preventing contrast-induced acute kidney injury in patients undergoing cardiac catheterisation.

Funding: Kaiser Permanente Southern California regional research committee grant.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial, Phase III
  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Acute Kidney Injury / chemically induced
  • Acute Kidney Injury / physiopathology
  • Acute Kidney Injury / prevention & control*
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Biomarkers / blood
  • Cardiac Catheterization / methods
  • Clinical Protocols
  • Contrast Media / adverse effects*
  • Creatinine / blood
  • Female
  • Fluid Therapy / adverse effects
  • Fluid Therapy / methods*
  • Hemodynamics / physiology
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Renal Replacement Therapy
  • Single-Blind Method
  • Stroke Volume / physiology


  • Biomarkers
  • Contrast Media
  • Creatinine

Associated data

  • ClinicalTrials.gov/NCT01218828