Purpose: The aim of this study was to construct a bacteremia prediction model using commonly available clinical variables in hospitalized patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP).
Basic procedures: A prospective database including patients who were diagnosed with CAP in the emergency department was analyzed. Independent risk factors were investigated by using multivariable analysis in 60% of the cohort. We assigned a weighted value to predictive factor and made a prediction rule. This model was validated both internally and externally with the remaining 40% of the cohort and a cohort from an independent hospital. The low-risk group for bacteremia was defined as patients who have a risk of bacteremia less than 3%.
Main findings: A total of 2422 patients were included in this study. The overall rate of bacteremia was 5.7% in the cohort. The significant factors for predicting bacteremia were the following 7 variables: systolic blood pressure less than 90 mm Hg, heart rate greater than 125 beats per minute, body temperature less than 35 °C or greater than 40 °C, white blood cell less than 4000 or 12,000 cells per microliter, platelets less than 130,000 cells per microliter, albumin less than 3.3 g/dL, and C-reactive protein greater than 17 mg/dL. After using our prediction rule for the validation cohorts, 78.7% and 74.8% of the internal and external validation cohorts were classified as low-risk bacteremia groups. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves were 0.75 and 0.79 for the internal and external validation cohorts.
Principal conclusions: This model could provide guidelines for whether to perform blood cultures for hospitalized CAP patients with the goal of reducing the number of blood cultures.
Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.