We report a versatile biosensing platform capable of achieving ultrasensitive detection of both small-molecule and macromolecular targets. The system features three components: reduced graphene oxide for its ability to adsorb single-stranded DNA molecules nonspecifically, DNA aptamers for their ability to bind reduced graphene oxide but undergo target-induced conformational changes that facilitate their release from the reduced graphene oxide surface, and rolling circle amplification (RCA) for its ability to amplify a primer-template recognition event into repetitive sequence units that can be easily detected. The key to the design is the tagging of a short primer to an aptamer sequence, which results in a small DNA probe that allows for both effective probe adsorption onto the reduced graphene oxide surface to mask the primer domain in the absence of the target, as well as efficient probe release in the presence of the target to make the primer available for template binding and RCA. We also made an observation that the circular template, which on its own does not cause a detectable level of probe release from the reduced graphene oxide, augments target-induced probe release. The synergistic release of DNA probes is interpreted to be a contributing factor for the high detection sensitivity. The broad utility of the platform is illustrated though engineering three different sensors that are capable of achieving ultrasensitive detection of a protein target, a DNA sequence and a small-molecule analyte. We envision that the approach described herein will find useful applications in the biological, medical, and environmental fields.