Sex and gender influences on pharmacological response: an overview

Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol. 2014 Jul;7(4):469-85. doi: 10.1586/17512433.2014.922866. Epub 2014 May 24.


Research on the specific effects of sex and gender on pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, as well as safety profile tolerability and drug efficacy, of medications remain meager because female animals and women have only recently been included in the pharmacological domain. To date, the influence of sex and gender on access to care and emotional factors, including patients and care provider dyads, the placebo effect, adherence, and safety profiles, are discussed. Furthermore, differences in drug responses, mainly for antidiabetic drugs, have been described. However, further studies are needed to explore the impact of sex and gender on reaching the most appropriate and tailored prescription for each patient, regardless of sex and gender.

Keywords: adherence; antidiabetic drugs; drug adverse effect; gender; medication; sex.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Humans
  • Medication Adherence
  • Pharmaceutical Preparations
  • Pharmacology*
  • Placebo Effect
  • Safety
  • Sex Characteristics*


  • Pharmaceutical Preparations