Spark plasma sintered Al₂O₃-YSZ-TiO₂ composites: processing, characterization and in vivo evaluation

Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl. 2014 Jul 1;40:16-23. doi: 10.1016/j.msec.2014.03.041. Epub 2014 Mar 26.


Al2O3 and Al2O3-YSZ composites containing 3 and 5 wt.% TiO2 were prepared by spark plasma sintering at temperatures of 1350-1400°C for 300s under a pressure of 40 MPa. The grain growth of alumina was suppressed by the addition of YSZ. Al2O3-YSZ composites showed higher hardness than monolithic Al2O3. There was not a considerable difference in hardness values for Al2O3-YSZ composites containing 10 and 20 vol.% YSZ and the addition of TiO2 decreased the hardness of the composites. The fracture toughness of Al2O3 increased from 2.8 MPa·m(1/2) to 4.3 MPa·m(1/2) with the addition of 10vol.% YSZ, further addition resulted in higher fracture toughness values. The fracture toughness values were increased with TiO2 addition and the highest value of fracture toughness, 5.3 MPa·m(1/2), was achieved with the addition of 20 vol.% YSZ and 5 wt.% TiO2. Preliminary in vivo tests demonstrated the biocompatibility and osseointegration of the composites after 6 week post-implantation in femur of Wistar rats.

Keywords: Al(2)O(3); In vivo evaluation; Spark plasma sintering; TiO(2); YSZ.

Publication types

  • Evaluation Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Aluminum Oxide / chemistry*
  • Animals
  • Biocompatible Materials / chemistry*
  • Biocompatible Materials / pharmacology
  • Femur / drug effects
  • Femur / pathology
  • Hardness
  • Hot Temperature
  • Osseointegration / drug effects
  • Pressure
  • Prostheses and Implants
  • Rats
  • Rats, Wistar
  • Titanium / chemistry*
  • Yttrium / chemistry*
  • Zirconium / chemistry*


  • Biocompatible Materials
  • titanium dioxide
  • Yttrium
  • Zirconium
  • Titanium
  • Aluminum Oxide
  • zirconium oxide
  • yttria