Many studies support a crucial role for oxidative & nitrosative stress (O&NS) in the pathophysiology of unipolar and bipolar depression. These disorders are characterized inter alia by lowered antioxidant defenses, including: lower levels of zinc, coenzyme Q10, vitamin E and glutathione; increased lipid peroxidation; damage to proteins, DNA and mitochondria; secondary autoimmune responses directed against redox modified nitrosylated proteins and oxidative specific epitopes. This review examines and details a model through which a complex series of environmental factors and biological pathways contribute to increased redox signaling and consequently increased O&NS in mood disorders. This multi-step process highlights the potential for future interventions that encompass a diverse range of environmental and molecular targets in the treatment of depression.
Keywords: Antioxidants; Autoimmune; Bipolar disorder; Depression; Inflammation; Oxidative & nitrosative stress.
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