Rheumatic fever associated with antiphospholipid syndrome: systematic review

J Immunol Res. 2014:2014:614591. doi: 10.1155/2014/614591. Epub 2014 Apr 22.


Objective: To evaluate the clinical associations between rheumatic fever and antiphospholipid syndrome and the impact of coexistence of these two diseases in an individual.

Methods: Systematic review in electronics databases, regarding the period from 1983 to 2012. The keywords: "Rheumatic Fever," "Antiphospholipid Syndrome," and "Antiphospholipid Antibody Syndrome" are used.

Results: were identified 11 cases described in the literature about the association of rheumatic fever and antiphospholipid syndrome. Clinical presentation of rheumatic fever was characterized by the predominance of carditis (11/11) and chorea (7/11). Regarding the manifestations of APS, the stroke was observed in 7/11 (63.6%), with one of them having probable embolic origin.

Conclusion: The present study brings the information that the association between APS and RF is quite rare, however, is of great clinical importance. Doctors who deal with the RF should include in their differential diagnosis the APS, especially in the presence of stroke in patients with RF and whose echocardiogram does not show intracavitary thrombi.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review
  • Systematic Review

MeSH terms

  • Antibodies, Antiphospholipid / blood
  • Antiphospholipid Syndrome / complications
  • Antiphospholipid Syndrome / diagnosis*
  • Antiphospholipid Syndrome / immunology
  • Antiphospholipid Syndrome / physiopathology
  • Chorea / physiopathology
  • Diagnosis, Differential
  • Humans
  • Myocarditis / physiopathology
  • Rheumatic Fever / complications
  • Rheumatic Fever / diagnosis*
  • Rheumatic Fever / immunology
  • Rheumatic Fever / physiopathology
  • Stroke / physiopathology


  • Antibodies, Antiphospholipid