Antimicrobial consumption and resistance in five Gram-negative bacterial species in a hospital from 2003 to 2011

J Microbiol Immunol Infect. 2015 Dec;48(6):647-54. doi: 10.1016/j.jmii.2014.04.009. Epub 2014 May 23.


Background: The misuse of antimicrobial agents increases drug resistance in bacteria.

Methods: The correlation between antimicrobial agent consumption and related resistance in the Gram-negative bacteria Acinetobacter baumannii, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Proteus mirabilis was analyzed during the period 2003-2011.

Results: Among these five bacteria, overall E. coli and K. pneumoniae were more commonly isolated from bloodstream than the other species. Regarding Enterobacteriaceae, E. coli and K. pneumoniae showed annual increases of resistance to the tested antimicrobial agents; conversely, P. mirabilis exhibited reduced resistance to cefuroxime, ceftriaxone and cefepime. In contrast to the relatively low antimicrobial resistance in P. aeruginosa, A. baumannii revealed high resistance, which was over 85% resistant rate to the tested antimicrobial agents and over 80% carbapenem resistance in 2011. E. coli, K. pneumoniae, and P. mirabilis differed in development of antimicrobial resistance after consumption of the antimicrobial agents. K. pneumoniae developed resistance to all antimicrobial groups, whereas resistance in P. mirabilis was not related to any antimicrobial consumption. P. aeruginosa developed resistance to β-lactam antimicrobials and aminoglycosides, whereas A. baumanii developed resistance to carbapenems after their use.

Conclusion: The development of antimicrobial resistance was related to antimicrobial agents and bacterial species.

Keywords: Gram-negative bacteria; antimicrobial agents; carbapenem.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Anti-Bacterial Agents / therapeutic use*
  • Bacterial Typing Techniques
  • Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial*
  • Gram-Negative Bacteria / drug effects*
  • Gram-Negative Bacteria / isolation & purification*
  • Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections / drug therapy*
  • Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections / microbiology
  • Hospitals
  • Humans
  • Microbial Sensitivity Tests
  • Retrospective Studies


  • Anti-Bacterial Agents