Importance of frailty in patients with cardiovascular disease

Eur Heart J. 2014 Jul;35(26):1726-31. doi: 10.1093/eurheartj/ehu197. Epub 2014 May 26.


Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality. With the ageing population, the prognostic determinants among others include frailty, health status, disability, and cognition. These constructs are seldom measured and factored into clinical decision-making or evaluation of the prognosis of these at-risk older adults, especially as it relates to high-risk interventions. Addressing this need effectively requires increased awareness and their recognition by the treating cardiologists, their incorporation into risk prediction models when treating an elderly patient with underlying complex CVD, and timely referral for comprehensive geriatric management. Simple measures such as gait speed, the Fried score, or the Rockwood Clinical Frailty Scale can be used to assess frailty as part of routine care of elderly patients with CVD. This review examines the prevalence and outcomes associated with frailty with special emphasis in patients with CVD.

Keywords: Assessment; Cardiovascular disease; Frailty; Prognosis.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / therapy*
  • Exercise Therapy / methods
  • Frail Elderly*
  • Geriatric Assessment / methods
  • Health Services for the Aged / standards
  • Health Status
  • Humans
  • Physical Fitness
  • Prognosis
  • Referral and Consultation
  • Risk Assessment
  • Surveys and Questionnaires