The possibility of diagnostic and/or prognostic use of measuring the concentration of advanced oxidation protein products (AOPPs) in chronic diseases with well-documented involvement of oxidative stress (OS) in their pathogenesis were the subject of numerous studies. In the present study discussed the pathological conditions and disorders, in which the role of OS and oxidative damage of proteins is also indicated as one of the factors in their etiopathogenesis. The presented data concerned clinical and diagnostic aspects of AOPPs as well as biochemical mechanisms of disturbances in the infection and autoimmune diseases, cancers, genetic and neurological diseases. Participation of AOPPs in disturbances connected with fertility, pregnancy delivery and prematurity are also shown. Moreover the single literature data concerning other pathological states, in which AOPPs are also becoming the object of intensive investigations are presented. The review and application possibilities of AOPPs measurement as useful marker for diagnosis, prognosis and monitoring the course of these diseases were performed. Diagnostic or prognostic utility of AOPPs are especially indicated in the course of rheumatoid arthritis, development of pregnancy complication both in mother and child, and dementia. However, AOPPs measurement seems to be most promising in plasma or urine in course of cancer diseases.