Encephalitis is the most frequent neurological complication of measles virus infection. This review examines the pathophysiology of measles infection and the presentations, diagnosis and treatment of the four types of measles-induced encephalitis including primary measles encephalitis, acute post-measles encephalitis, measles inclusion body encephalitis and subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. The early symptoms of encephalitis may be non-specific and can be mistakenly attributed to a systemic infection leading to a delay in diagnosis. This review provides a summary of the symptoms that should cause health care workers to suspect measles-induced encephalitis.
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