An investigation of the prevalence of Campylobacter ureolyticus in a variety of animals led to the identification of the strain CIT 045(T), in the faeces of captive lion-tailed macaques (Macaca silenus). Originally, believed to be Campylobacter ureolyticus based on the colony morphology and positive urease test, analysis of 16S rRNA and hsp60 gene sequences of this isolate revealed that the strain differs significantly from other species of the genus Campylobacter described to date. Species-specific primers for 16S rRNA and hsp60 genes were designed and used to identify two additional strains isolated from faeces samples from other macaques. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA and hsp60 genes revealed ≤95% and ≤82 % sequence similarity to recognized species of the genus Campylobacter respectively. All three isolates formed a distinct group within the genus Campylobacter based on their 16S rRNA and hsp60 sequences and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight (MALDI-TOF) profiles. The unique species status was further supported by phenotypic characteristics of the isolates. All isolates were found to be oxidase-, catalase- and urease-positive, they grew well at 37 °C and 42 °C and produced H2S on TSI (triple-sugar iron) and SIM (sulfide indole motility) media. The name Campylobacter corcagiensis sp. nov. is proposed for this novel species, with the strain CIT 045(T) as the type strain CIT 045(T) ( = LMG 27932(T), CCUG 64942(T)).
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