The objective was to identify the presence of cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (CAN) in a cohort of individuals with diabetes in outpatient clinics from 4 different parts of Denmark and to explore the difference between type 1 and type 2 diabetes in relation to CAN. The DAN-Study is a Danish multicenter study focusing on diabetic autonomic neuropathy. Over a period of 12 months, 382 type 1 and 271 type 2 individuals with diabetes were tested for CAN. Patients were randomly recruited and tested during normal visits to outpatient clinics at 4 Danish hospitals. The presence of CAN was quantified by performing 3 cardiovascular reflex tests (response to standing, deep breathing, and valsalva). To describe possible associations, multivariate analysis with CAN as the dependent variable was performed. The prevalence of CAN was higher among patients with type 2 diabetes (35%) compared to patients with type 1 diabetes (25%). Multivariate analysis revealed significant associations between CAN and different risk markers in the 2 populations. In type 1 diabetes patients CAN was associated with microalbuminuria (P < .001), macroalbuminuria (P = .011), simplex retinopathy (P < .001), proliferative retinopathy (P < .001), and peripheral neuropathy (P = .041). Among type 2 diabetes patients CAN was independently associated with high pulse pressure (P < .01), BMI (P = .006), and smoking (P = .025). In this cross-sectional observational study CAN was independently associated with microvascular complication in type 1, whereas in type 2 CAN was associated with macrovascular risk factors.
Keywords: cardiac autonomic neuropathy; diabetes; hypertension; macrovascular complications; microvascular complications.
© 2014 Diabetes Technology Society.