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. 2014 Sep;78:290-303.
doi: 10.1016/j.ympev.2014.05.023. Epub 2014 May 28.

Molecular Phylogeny and Evolution of the Cone Snails (Gastropoda, Conoidea)

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Free PMC article

Molecular Phylogeny and Evolution of the Cone Snails (Gastropoda, Conoidea)

N Puillandre et al. Mol Phylogenet Evol. .
Free PMC article

Abstract

We present a large-scale molecular phylogeny that includes 320 of the 761 recognized valid species of the cone snails (Conus), one of the most diverse groups of marine molluscs, based on three mitochondrial genes (COI, 16S rDNA and 12S rDNA). This is the first phylogeny of the taxon to employ concatenated sequences of several genes, and it includes more than twice as many species as the last published molecular phylogeny of the entire group nearly a decade ago. Most of the numerous molecular phylogenies published during the last 15years are limited to rather small fractions of its species diversity. Bayesian and maximum likelihood analyses are mostly congruent and confirm the presence of three previously reported highly divergent lineages among cone snails, and one identified here using molecular data. About 85% of the species cluster in the single Large Major Clade; the others are divided between the Small Major Clade (∼12%), the Conus californicus lineage (one species), and a newly defined clade (∼3%). We also define several subclades within the Large and Small major clades, but most of their relationships remain poorly supported. To illustrate the usefulness of molecular phylogenies in addressing specific evolutionary questions, we analyse the evolution of the diet, the biogeography and the toxins of cone snails. All cone snails whose feeding biology is known inject venom into large prey animals and swallow them whole. Predation on polychaete worms is inferred as the ancestral state, and diet shifts to molluscs and fishes occurred rarely. The ancestor of cone snails probably originated from the Indo-Pacific; rather few colonisations of other biogeographic provinces have probably occurred. A new classification of the Conidae, based on the molecular phylogeny, is published in an accompanying paper.

Keywords: 12SrRNA; 16SrRNA; Ancestral state reconstruction; COI; Conidae; Conus.

Figures

Figure 1
Figure 1
Three sub-parts of the COI Bayesian tree that illustrate discrepancies between COI diversity and morphological diversity. a) C. teramachii complex. b) Putative cryptic species in C. imperialis. c) C. miliaris complex (black arrows).
Figure 2
Figure 2
Bayesian tree based on a concatenation of the COI, 16S and 12S genes for the reduced dataset of 326 specimens. Posterior probabilities (> 0.95) are shown for each node. Genus and subgenus names follow the classification based on the phylogenetic tree and published in Puillandre et al. (in press).
Figure 2
Figure 2
Bayesian tree based on a concatenation of the COI, 16S and 12S genes for the reduced dataset of 326 specimens. Posterior probabilities (> 0.95) are shown for each node. Genus and subgenus names follow the classification based on the phylogenetic tree and published in Puillandre et al. (in press).
Figure 2
Figure 2
Bayesian tree based on a concatenation of the COI, 16S and 12S genes for the reduced dataset of 326 specimens. Posterior probabilities (> 0.95) are shown for each node. Genus and subgenus names follow the classification based on the phylogenetic tree and published in Puillandre et al. (in press).
Figure 3
Figure 3
Mapping of the type of prey on the Bayesian tree based on a concatenation of the COI, 16S and 12S genes for the reduced dataset of 326 specimens. *: species for which at least one nucleotide sequence of conotoxin is registered in GenBank. 1: species for which the diet is know from direct observations. 2: species for which the diet has been inferred from the radula. ?: species for which the diet is unknown. When species for which the diet has been inferred from the radula are not taken into account for the ancestral state reconstruction, the clade delimited by the ligh grey box is inferred to include only mollusc-hunting species and the two clades delimited by the dark grey boxes are inferred to include only fish-hunting species.
Figure 4
Figure 4
Mapping of the geographic distribution (EA = East Atlantic; EP = East Pacific; IP = Indo-Pacific; SA = South Africa; WA = West Atlantic) on the Bayesian tree based on a concatenation of the COI, 16S and 12S genes for the reduced dataset of 326 specimens.
Figure 5
Figure 5

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