Cell polarization is a theme in biology conserved from bacteria to man. One of the most extremely polarized cells in nature is the hyphae of filamentous fungi. A continuous flow of secretion vesicles from the hyphal cell body to the tip is essential for cell wall and membrane extension. Microtubules (MTs) and actin, along with their corresponding motor proteins, are involved in the secretion process. Therefore, the arrangement of the cytoskeleton is a crucial step to establish and maintain polarity. Here we review recent findings unraveling the mechanism of polarized growth with special emphasis on the role of the actin and MT cytoskeletons and cell end markers linking the two cytoskeletons. We will mainly focus on Neurospora crassa and Aspergillus nidulans as model organisms.
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